EU Procedural Law Study: Consumer Protection General Report published by the European Commission

On 26 January 2018, the European Commission published the second General Report of the study on procedural law undertaken by the Max Planck Institute Luxembourg. This strand of the study concerned the effect of divergences in national procedural laws on the equivalence and effectiveness of the procedural protection of consumers under EU consumer law.

For the first strand of the study, see here.

More information is available here.

Praxis des Internationalen Privat- und Verfahrensrechts (IPRax) 1/2018: Abstracts

The latest issue of the „Praxis des Internationalen Privat- und Verfahrensrechts (IPRax)“ features the following articles: Read more

Commentary on the Service Regulation

The first Commentary on the Service Regulation (1393/2007) in Greece has just been published. The volume sheds light on all aspects of cross border service within the EU, approaching the topic both from a domestic and an EU-case law viewpoint. Read more

Fourth Issue of 2017’s Revue Critique de Droit International Privé

The last issue of the “Revue critique de droit international privé” will shortly be released. It contains several casenotes and one article, authored by Professor Andrea Bonomi (Lausanne University): « La compétence internationale en matière de divorce. Quelques suggestions pour une (improbable) révision du règlement Bruxelles IIbis ».

A full table of contents is available here.

The CJEU on the scope of the Regulation (EC) No 805/2004 creating a European Enforcement Order for uncontested claims.

On 14 December 2017  the CJEU has ruled on the scope of the Regulation (EC) No 805/2004  European Enforcement Order for uncontested claims – Case C-66/17.

As stated by the CJEU, ‘Article 4(1) and Article 7 of Regulation (EC) No 805/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 creating a European Enforcement Order for uncontested claims must be interpreted as meaning that an enforceable decision on the amount of costs related to court proceedings, contained in a judgment which does not relate to an uncontested claim, cannot be certified as a European Enforcement Order.’

In the meantime, given the definition of an uncontested claim, a EEO can be issued only in relation to a condemnatory decision, not in relation to a declaratory one.

Facts and main proceedings

Mr and Mrs Chudas had brought a declaratory action before a Polish court of first instance to establish whether they had acquired the right of ownership over a motor vehicle. The DA Deutsche Allgemeine Versicherung Aktiengesellschaft (Germany) was summoned to appear in the proceedings as defendant, but did not appear.

The court delivered a default judgment, in which it held that Mr and Mrs Chuda? had acquired the right of ownership over the motor vehicle and ordered DA Deutsche Allgemeine Versicherung Aktiengesellschaft to pay the costs of the proceedings. Mr and Mrs Chudas then initiated the procedure in order to have to the costs of the proceedings certified as a European Enforcement Order.

The District court had doubts as to whether the type of decision felt within the substantive scope of the Regulation No 805/2004 and referred following question to the Court of Justice for a preliminary ruling.

Question for a preliminary ruling

[24] ‘Should Article 4(1) of Regulation … No 805/2004 …, read in conjunction with Article 7 of that regulation, be interpreted as meaning that a European Enforcement Order certificate may be issued in respect of a decision concerning reimbursement of the costs of proceedings contained in a judgment in which a court has established the existence of a right?’

Main considerations

According to the CJEU,

[31] Article 4(1) of that regulation defines a ‘judgment’ as encompassing any judgment given by a court or tribunal of a Member State, including ‘the determination of costs or expenses by an officer of the court’. Second, an enforceable decision on the amount of costs related to the court proceedings amounts, in principle, to a ‘claim’ within the meaning of the definition of that term provided by Article 4(2) of the regulation.

[32]  However, as has been noted in paragraph 29 of the present judgment, under the specific provisions governing costs related to court proceedings laid down in Article 7 of Regulation No 805/2004, a decision on the amount of such costs cannot be certified as a European Enforcement Order independently of a judgment on an uncontested claim. In so far as the decision on those costs is intrinsically linked to the outcome of the principal action, which alone justifies the certification of a judgment as a European Enforcement Order, the definitions laid down in Article 4 of that regulation cannot affect the applicability of the regulation.

An International Seminar on New Procedural Legislation in Civil and Family Matters to be held in Mexico (13-15 February 2018)

An international seminar on new procedural legislation in civil and family matters will be held from 13 to 15 February 2018 in Toluca, Mexico. This seminar is being supported by the Conferencia Nacional de Gobernadores (Conago – National Conference of Governors) and there is no registration fee. There will be speakers from Argentina, Mexico, Spain and Germany.

This seminar will showcase two important Mexican initiatives: the draft National Law on Private International Law and the future National Code of Civil and Family Procedure. The former is an initiative of the Mexican Academy of Private International and Comparative Law (Amedip) and other stakeholders. The latter is the result of a groundbreaking reform by the Mexican Congress passed last year which intends to put in place one single code of procedure in civil and family matters in all Mexican states (32) (to replicate the recent experience in criminal matters). This is particularly interesting given that Mexico is a federal State and each state has competence to legislate on matters of civil procedure and as a result, has passed its own code.

For more information, click here for the seminar’s programme or contact

Bilingual Moot Court Conflict of Laws Sciences Po

Thanks to Horatia Muir Watt and Hélène van Lith for this post.

Sciences Po Law School is delighted to announce the 6th edition of the inter-university Private international law Moot Competition. Sciences Po Law School has been organizing a bilingual moot court on Private International Law in the past 5 years. This 6th edition will be going global and will be called the PAX Moot. Read more

Invitation: International Workshop on a Data Base on Cross-Border Enforcement of Claims at the Max-Planck-Institute Luxembourg

On February 26th, a workshop on the organization of databases on European civil procedural law will take place at the Max-Planck-Institute (MPI) Luxembourg. The workshop is part of a research project in which the MPI is participating together with major European Universities (Complutense, Milan, Rotterdam, Wroclaw), coordinated by Prof. Jan von Hein, Freiburg (the so called IC2BE project: Informed Choices in Cross-Border Enforcement). The final aim of the project is to assess the working in practice of the “second generation” of EU regulations on procedural law for cross-border cases, i.e., the European Enforcement Order, Order for Payment, Small Claims (as amended by Regulation (EU) 2015/2421) and the Account Preservation Order Regulations. In this framework, we intend to create a data base of national case law. With the input of experts from the Commission and the CJEU on the one hand, and from potential users of the data base on the other, the workshop will explore the possible content and design of such a data base.

As part of the knowledge dissemination strategy, we would like to open the workshop to practitioners (or senior academics) interested in the application of the above mentioned Regulations to apply for an invitation to the workshop. A selection will be made based on a short CV/explanation for being professionally interested in the topics discussed. The invitation would cover the travel expenses and one night accommodation in Luxembourg.

Date: Monday 26th February 2018, from (approx.) 9.30 am to 5 pm. A dinner will take place the day before for those arriving on Sunday 25th.

Venue: Max Planck Institute Luxembourg

Contact person:

Deadline for applications: 1st February.



Deference to Foreign Sovereign Submissions

Following up on my previous post here, the United States Supreme Court granted certiorari on January 12, 2018 in Animal Science Products, Inc. v. Hebei Welcome Pharmaceutical Co. (No. 16-1220).  The grant was limited to the following question presented:

Whether a court may exercise independent review of an appearing foreign sovereign’s interpretation of its domestic law (as held by the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eleventh, and D.C. Circuits), or whether a court is “bound to defer” to a foreign government’s legal statement, as a matter of international comity, whenever a foreign government appears before the court (as held by the opinion below in accord with the Ninth Circuit).

For some of my thoughts on this question, offered well in advance of this case, see here.


Now Available in the 7th Edition: The „Münchener Kommentar“ on European and German Private International Law

It has not yet been mentioned on this blog that the Münchener Kommentar zum Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch, Vols. 11 and 12, is now available in its seventh edition (2018). This work is a standard treatise not only on German private international law, but on European PIL as well. Read more