HCCH Monthly Update: September 2021


On 9 September 2021, Honduras deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute, becoming the 90th Member of the HCCH. More information is available here.

Conventions & Instruments

On 1 September 2021, the HCCH 1993 Adoption Convention entered into force for Niger. The Convention currently has 104 Contracting Parties. More information is available here.

On 16 September 2021, Costa Rica signed the HCCH 2019 Judgments Convention. Although the 2019 Judgments Convention is not yet in force, Costa Rica is its fourth signatory. More information is available here.

On 16 September 2021, the HCCH 1961 Apostille Convention entered into force for Singapore. The Convention currently has 120 Contracting Parties. More information is available here.

HCCH Monthly Update: August 2021

Conventions & Instruments

On 23 July 2021, New Zealand deposited its instrument of ratification of the HCCH 2007 Child Support Convention. With the ratification of New Zealand, 42 states and the European Union are bound by the Child Support Convention. It will enter into force for New Zealand on 1 November 2021. More information is available here.

On 1 August 2021, the HCCH 1996 Child Protection Convention entered into force for Costa Rica. It currently has 53 Contracting Parties. More information is available here.

Meetings & Events

As announced on 3 August 2021, registration for the 12th International Forum on the electronic Apostille Programme (e-APP) is now open to the general public. The event will be hosted online on 4 October 2021. The deadline for registration is Friday, 10 September 2021, 5.00 p.m. CEST. More information is available here.

HCCH Monthly Update: April 2021

On 14 April, the Working Group on the Practical Handbook on the Operation of the 2000 Protection of Adults Convention met for the first time. Comprised of experts with experience in the operation or implementation of the 2000 Protection of Adults Convention, the Working Group will meet via videoconference every two weeks, between 14 April and 23 June, in order to continue the development of a draft Practical Handbook on the operation of the Convention. More information on the 2000 Protection of Adults Convention is available here.

HCCH Monthly Update: March 2021

Meeting of the Council on General Affairs and Policy

The Council on General Affairs and Policy (CGAP) of the HCCH met online from 1 to 5 March 2021, with over 350 participants. Over the course of five days, HCCH Members reviewed progress made to date and agreed on the work programme for the year ahead. More information is available here.

Several important developments relating to Membership and HCCH Conventions occurred during the meeting:

  • Thailand deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute, becoming the 88thMember of the HCCH.
  • El Salvador applied to become a Member of the HCCH. Following a six-month voting period and provided a majority of votes have been cast in its favour, El Salvador will be invited to become a Member by accepting the Statute of the HCCH.

Webinar on COVID-19 and international child abduction

A free webinar to hear experts of MK Family Law (Washington) and Grotius Chambers (The Hague) discuss pertinent issues relating to international child abduction in times of COVID-19. 

Date: 8 April 2020
Time: 3 pm (CET Amsterdam)

COVID-19 has a significant impact on all aspects of our lives. Since the WHO declared the outbreak a pandemic, numerous States have implemented travel bans in an attempt to contain its spread. Moreover, States have closed courts and adjourned or even cancelled hearings.

Such restrictions cause direct impacts on transnational families. They may hinder, in particular, the prompt return of children in cases of international child abduction. Parents may encounter difficulties in commencing proceedings before the competent authorities, as well as complying with an agreement or return order.

Child Abduction and Habitual Residence in the Supreme Court of Canada

The Supreme Court of Canada, in Office of the Children’s Lawyer v Balev (available here), has evolved the law in Canada on the meaning of a child’s habitual residence under Article 3 of the Hague Convention.  The Convention deals with the return of children wrongfully removed from the jurisdiction of their habitual residence.

A majority of the court identifies [paras 4 and 39ff] three possible approaches to habitual residence: the parental intention approach, the child-centred approach, and the hybrid approach.  The parental intention approach determines the habitual residence of a child by the intention of the parents with the right to determine where the child lives.  This approach has been the dominant one in Canada.  In contrast, the hybrid approach, instead of focusing primarily on either parental intention or the child’s acclimatization, looks to all relevant considerations arising from the facts of the case.  A majority of the court, led by the (now retired) Chief Justice, holds that the law in Canada should be the hybrid approach [paras 5 and 48].  One of the main reasons for the change is that the hybrid approach is used in many other Hague Convention countries [paras 49-50].

Intersection of Child Abduction Process and Refugee Claim

The Court of Appeal for Ontario has released its decision in A.M.R.I. v. K.E.R. (available here).  The decision deals with the intersection of the law relating to children who advance a refugee claim and the law on returning abducted children under the Hague Convention.

A girl of 12 had travelled from Mexico, where she lived with her mother (who had custody), to Ontario to visit her father (who had access rights).  There she disclosed that she had been abused by her mother.  She made a refugee application and the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada found her to be a refugee as a result of the abuse.  After she had lived in Ontario for about 18 months, the mother applied under the Hague Convention for her return to Mexico.  The Superior Court of Justice ordered that she be returned, and she was – in quite a remarkable way which violated her right to dignity and respect (para. 7).  On appeal, the Court of Appeal reversed that decision.  It set aside the order of return and ordered a new hearing on the Hague Convention application.