Tag Archive for: European Private International Law

Commission publishes a revised notice to stakeholders in the field of civil justice and private international law in view of UK’s withdrawal from the EU

The DIRECTORATE-GENERAL JUSTICE AND CONSUMERS of the Commission has recently published a further notice on the EU-Brexit saga in the field of civil justice and private international law.

The notice covers core aspects, such as international jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition and enforcement, specific European procedures (EPO, ESCP), judicial cooperation instruments (Service and Evidence Regulations), insolvency, ans other pertinent issues (public documents, legal aid, mediation).

The full text of the notice may be retrieved here.

CJEU on the implications of its Judgment in Pula Parking: Joined cases C-267/19 and C-323/19, Parking / Interplastics

Preliminary question and its context

In its Judgment of 7 May 2020, delivered in the joined cases C-267/19 and C-323/19 without Advocate General’s Opinion, the Court of Justice provides some further guidance on the implications of its previous case law and most notably of the Judgment in the case C-551/15, Pula Parking (‘Judgment in Pula Parking’).

Just as in the case that led to Judgment in Pula Parking, the requests for a preliminary ruling in the cases in question were lodged in the context of the proceedings on the oppositions to the writs of execution. Put succinctly: under the Croatian law, a notary issues a writ of execution based on an ‘authentic document’. The party against whom enforcement is sought may lodge an opposition to that writ. The court to which the opposition is transferred has jurisdiction to set aside the writ and to annul the measures taken so far. The procedure continues according to the rules applicable to cases of opposition to a payment order.

By way of background, in Judgment in Pula Parking, the Court held, inter alia, that ‘[the Brussels I bis Regulation] must be interpreted as meaning that, in Croatia, notaries, acting within the framework of the powers conferred on them by national law in enforcement proceedings based on an “authentic document”, do not fall within the concept of “court” within the meaning of that [Regulation]’.

The referring court in the present cases indicates that Judgment in Pula Parking receives various interpretation on the national level. It seems that the reading of this Judgment according to which it relates exclusively to enforcement proceedings conducted against a party being a natural person and national of another EU Member State prevails in the Croatian case law.

However, for the referring court, that reading of Judgment in Pula Parking establishes a discriminatory difference in the way in which the Brussels I bis Regulation is applied in Croatia. The referring court seems to understand that Judgment as implying that, in its Member State, notaries are not entitled to issue writs of execution based on an ‘authentic document’ and therefore, the fact that they continue to do so, is at odds with the Regulation.

In view of those explanations, at paragraph 42 the Court clarifies that it understands the request for a preliminary ruling as concerning the question whether Article 18 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and Article 47 of the Charter preclude national legislation entitling the Croatian notaries to issue the writs of execution on the basis of the ‘authentic documents’, which, in light of Judgment in Pula Parking, will not be recognized and/or enforced in other Member States under the scheme of the Brussels I bis Regulation.


Consideration of the question referred and what can be learned from it

At paragraph 43 the Court reaffirms that the writs of execution issued by the Croatian notaries would not benefit from the scheme of the Regulation when it comes to their recognition and/or enforcement. At paragraph 44, the Court reminds that Judgment in Pula Parking does not imply, however, that the Brussels I bis Regulation prevents the notaries from issuing the writs of execution. The references to Judgment in Pula Parking pave the way for the conclusion that neither Article 18 of the TFUE (paragraph 45), nor Article 47 of the Charter (paragraph 53) preclude national legislation entitling the notaries to issue the writs of execution which do not benefit from the recognition/enforcement scheme of the Regulation.

Incidentally, given that according to Judgment in Pula Parking the notaries do not fall within the concept of ‘court’ within the meaning of the Brussels I bis Regulation, paragraph 43 seems to imply that a writ of execution based on a ‘authentic document’ would not be recognized and/or enforced as ‘judgment’ within the meaning of Article 2(a) of the Regulation.

Neither the joined cases in question, nor the case that led to Judgment in Pula Parking offered an opportunity to address the question whether a writ of execution issued by a notary could be enforced under the scheme of the Brussels I bis Regulation as an ‘authentic instrument’ in the sense of Article 2(c) of the Regulation. In any case, an ‘authentic document’ on which a writ of execution is based cannot, in my view, be automatically placed on the same footing as such ‘authentic instrument’. Therefore, a writ of execution would not necessarily have to be an ‘authentic instrument’ based on an ‘authentic instrument’.

For the sake of completeness, AG Bot touched upon a somehow similar question in the context of the Regulation No 805/2004 (Regulation on European Enforcement Order for uncontested claims) in his Opinion in the case C-484/15, Zulfikarpaši. At points 45 to 49, he considered that a writ of execution is not an ‘authentic instrument’ within the meaning of Article 3(1) of that Regulation because the writ does not concern an uncontested claim. That argumentation is in line with the interpretation that the Court presented in its Judgment in that case and in particular at its paragraph 55. However, such argumentation could most probably not be directly transposed to the Brussels I bis Regulation as this Regulation does not confine its scope solely to uncontested claims.

It is also worth noticing that the Judgment of 7 May 2020 makes a point that exceeds the scope of the inquiry on the implications of Judgment in Pula Parking for the Croatian legal system. At paragraphs 33 et seq., in the part of the Judgment of 7 May 2020 relating to the jurisdiction of the Court, the criteria set in Article 3(1) of the Regulation no 1896/2006 (Regulation on European Order for Payment) in order to define a ‘cross-border case’ within the meaning of that Regulation are referred to in order to establish the existence of an international element that is necessary for the Brussels I bis Regulation to become applicable to a specific case.

The requests for a preliminary ruling in the cases in question can be consulted here and here. For numerous linguistic versions of the Judgment see here (no English version yet).

Conference: “Le successioni internazionali in Europa” (International Successions in Europe) – Rome, 13 October 2016

The Faculty of Law of the University of Rome “La Sapienza” will host a German-Italian-Spanish conference on Thursday, 13th October 2016, on International Successions in Europe. The conference has been convened for the presentation of the volume “The EU Succession Regulation: a Commentary, edited by Alfonso-Luís Calvo Caravaca (University “Carlos III” of Madrid), Angelo Davì (University of Rome “La Sapienza”) and Heinz-Peter Mansel (University of Cologne), published by Cambridge University Press, 2016. The volume is the product of a research project on “The Europeanization of Private International Law of Successions” financed through the European Commission’s Civil Justice Programme.

Here is the programme (available as .pdf):

Welcome addresses: Prof. Enrico del Prato (Director, Department of Legal Sciences, University “La Sapienza”); Prof. Paolo Ridola (Dean, Faculty of Law, University “La Sapienza”); Prof. Angelo Davì (University “La Sapienza”).

First Session

Chair: Prof. Ugo Villani (University of Bari, President of SIDI-ISIL – Italian Society for International Law)

  • Prof. Javier Carrascosa González (University of Murcia): La residenza abituale e la clausola di eccezione (Habitual Residence and Exception Clause);
  • Prof. Cristina Campiglio (University of Pavia): La facoltà di scelta del diritto applicabile (Choice of the Applicable Law by the Testator);
  • Prof. Erik Jayme (University of Heidelberg): Metodi classici e nuove norme di conflitto: il regolamento relativo alle successioni (Traditional Methods and New Conflict Rules: the EU Regulation Concerning Succession);
  • Prof. Claudio Consolo (University “La Sapienza”): Il coordinamento tra le giurisdizioni (Coordination between Jurisdictions).

Second Session

Chair: Prof. Sergio Maria Carbone (University of Genova)

  • Prof. Peter Kindler (University of Munich): I patti successori (Agreements as to Succession);
  • Round Table: The European Certificate of Succession
    Introduction: Prof. Claudio Consolo (University “La Sapienza”);
    Participants: Dr. Ana Fernández Tresguerres (Notary in Madrid); Dr. Paolo Pasqualis (Notary in Portogruaro); Dr. Fabian Wall (Notary in Ludwigshafen).

Concluding remarks: Prof. Sergio Maria Carbone (University of Genova).

(Many thanks to Prof. Fabrizio Marongiu Buonaiuti, University of Macerata, for the tip-off)

Seminar: “New Trends in EU Private International Law” (Milan, 15 September 2016)

The University of Milan will host a very interesting seminar on 15 September 2016 (15h00) on “New Trends in EU Private International Law”. Here is the programme:

Welcome address: Prof. Laura Ammannati (Univ. of Milan);

Chair: Prof. Dr. h.c. mult. Fausto Pocar (Univ. of Milan);

  • Prof. Paul Lagarde (Univ. of Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne): Les règlements en matière de régimes matrimoniaux et d’effets patrimoniaux des partenariats enregistrés;
  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. Jürgen Basedow (MPI, Hamburg): Damages claims for anticompetitive conduct and the competition of legal services;
  • Prof. Dr. Christian Kohler (Univ. des Saarlandes): Les dispositions de d.i.p. du règlement 2016/679 relatif à la protection des données à caractère personnel (et de la directive 2016/680);
  • Prof. Francisco Garcimartín Alférez (Univ. Autónoma de Madrid): The GEDIP proposal on the law applicable to companies;
  • Prof. Manlio Frigo (Univ. of Milan): Methods and techniques of dispute settlement in the international practice of restitution and return of cultural property;

Final remarks: Prof. Stefania Bariatti (Univ. of Milan).

Further information and the (mandatory) registration form can be found here.

(Many thanks to Prof. Francesca Villata for the tip-off)

Reminder: 2015 JPIL Conference at Cambridge: Booking Deadlines

The 10th Anniversary of the Journal of Private International Law Conference is being held at the Faculty of Law, Cambridge University on 3-5 September 2015.  Booking for accommodation closes soon – on 15th July.  Booking for the conference and dinner will close on 13th August.

The conference offers an excellent opportunity to hear and discuss many issues currently facing private international law.

More information and registration is here.  A draft programme is available on the same web site.

Milan Conference on the Reform of the Brussels I Regime (13 December 2013)

The University “Luigi Bocconi” of Milan will host on Friday 13 December (9h30 – 13h00) a conference on the recast of the Brussels I reg., organized in collaboration with the International Law Association: “The Reform of the ‘Brussels I’ Regime – The Recast Regulation (EU) No 1215/2012”. A substantial part of the colloquium will be held in English. Here’s the programme (available as a .pdf file):

Welcome Address: Giorgio Sacerdoti (Università Bocconi)

Opening Remarks: Alberto Malatesta (Secretary, ILA-Italy)

Chair: Fausto Pocar (Università degli Studi di Milano)

  • The Revised Brussels I Regulation – A general outlook: The Rt. Hon. Lord Jonathan Mance (Judge, Supreme Court of the UK and Chair, Executive Council, ILA);
  • Does the Recast Regulation Make Choice-of-Court Agreements More Effective?: Gianluca Contaldi (Università di Macerata);
  • The New Rules on Parallel Proceedings with Particular Regard to Relations with Third States: Pietro Franzina (Università degli Studi di Ferrara);
  • The Abolition of Exequatur and the New Rules on the Free Movement of Judgments: Paola Mariani (Università Bocconi).

– – – –

Roundtable (held in Italian): “Il ruolo di Bruxelles I nel contesto globale: quale ruolo per le norme UE?

Chair: Riccardo Luzzatto (Università degli Studi di Milano)


  • Luigi Fumagalli (Università degli Studi di Milano);
  • Alberto Malatesta (LIUC Università Carlo Cattaneo);
  • Gian Battista Origoni della Croce (Attorney at Law, Milan);
  • Fausto Pocar (Università degli Studi di Milano).

Further information and the registration form are available on the conference’s webpage.

Davì, Le renvoi en droit international privé contemporain (Recueil des cours, vol. 352)

Prof. Angelo Davì (University of Rome “La Sapienza”) has recently published in the Recueil des cours (vol. 352) the course on renvoi held at the Hague Academy of International Law: “Le renvoi en droit international privé contemporain“.

An English presentation has been kindly provided by the author (a French version is available on the publisher’s website):

The Course deals with the modern development of scientific thinking on renvoi, examines its various functions in contemporary legal systems and assesses the importance of its current role. The different models of renvoi present in domestic legislations as well as in uniform rules on conflict of laws, of either a conventional or supra-national origin, are analysed on the basis of the fundamental distinction between models which merely take into account foreign choice of law rules and models based on a complete reconstruction of the content of foreign private international law. Ample space is accorded to developments in the EU system of private international law, as well as to an analysis of the relationship between renvoi and other methods and techniques currently employed in this area of the law, mainly for the purpose of assessing the effects their diffusion is likely to produce on the role played by renvoi as an instrument of coordination in contemporary private international law.

Title: Le renvoi en droit international privé contemporain, by Angelo Davì, Brill Academic Publishers – Martinus Nijhoff (series: Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law, vol. 352), Leiden, 2012, pp. 528.

ISBN: 9789004227262. Price: EUR 145. Available at Brill.

EU Regulation on Succession and Wills Published in the Official Journal

The EU regulation on succession (see our most recent post here) has been published in the Official Journal of the European Union n. L 201 of 27 July 2012. The official reference is the following: Regulation (EU) No 650/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition and enforcement of decisions and acceptance and enforcement of authentic instruments in matters of succession and on the creation of a European Certificate of Succession (OJ n. L 201, p. 107 ff.).

Pursuant to its Art. 84(2), the regulation shall apply from 17 August 2015, to the succession of persons who die on or after the same date (see Art. 83(1)). Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom did not take part in the adoption of the instrument and are not bound by it.

Our friend Federico Garau, over at Conflictus Legum, provides an excellent summary of the main principles underlying this new piece of EU PIL legislation. A rich list of references on the regulation and its legislative history is pointed out by Pietro Franzina, at the Aldricus blog.

JHA Council (7-8 June 2012): EU Regulation on Successions and Wills Adopted – General Approach on Brussels I Recast – CESL

The Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) Council of the EU, currently holding its meeting in Luxembourg (7-8 June), adopted today the successions regulation (Regulation on jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition and enforcement of decisions, acceptance and enforcement of authentic instruments in matters of succession and on the creation of a European certificate of succession): see the Council’s note and RAPID press release. The final text can be found in doc. no. PE-CONS 14/12.

Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom do not participate in the regulation, pursuant to the special position they hold in respect of the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, while Malta voted against the adoption, expressing concerns on the uncertainty that the new rules will create in the legal regime of international successions, vis-à-vis current Maltese law (see the Maltese statement in the Addendum to Council’s doc. no. 10569/1/12).

As pointed out in a previous post, an agreement had been reached by the Council and the Parliament in order to adopt the new instrument at first reading: a history of the legislative procedure, along with the key documents, is available on the OEIL and Prelex websites. Once the regulation is published in the OJ, the whole set of Council’s documents relating to the procedure, currently not available, will be disclosed. An interesting reading on the legislative history can also be found on the IPEX website, which gathers the opinions of national parliaments of the Member States on draft EU legislation.

– – –

Two other PIL items are set on the agenda of the JHA meeting on Friday 8 June. The Council is expected to approve a general approach on the Brussels I recast (see the state of play in Council’s doc. no 10609/12 and the draft text set out in doc. no 10609/12 ADD 1), and to hold a debate on the orientation and the method to handle the further negotiations on the proposal for regulation on a Common European Sales Law (CESL). As regards the latter, here’s an excerpt from the background note of the meeting:

The first discussions on the [CESL] proposal have made it clear that this file entails divergences among member states. Several member states had therefore requested that a political debate at the level of the Council takes place before proceeding further with technical discussions.

To this end, the Presidency submits a discussion paper to the Council (10611/12) proposing that  ministers address questions related to the legal basis and the need for the proposal, its scope (focus  on sales contracts concluded on-line) and whether to start work on model contract terms and conditions.

Italian Society of International Law’s XVII Annual Meeting (Genova, 31 May – 1 June 2012)

On 31 May – 1 June 2012, the Italian Society of International Law (Società Italiana di Diritto Internazionale – SIDI) will hold its XVII Annual Meeting at the University of Genova. The conference is dedicated to “L’Unione europea a vent’anni da Maastricht: verso nuove regole” (European Union 20 Years After the Maastricht Treaty: Towards New Rules) (see the complete programme here).

The opening session, in the afternoon of Thursday 31 May, will be devoted to international economic law, focusing on the euro crisis (“Diritto internazionale dell’economia e crisi dell’euro”). In the morning of Friday, 1 June, the meeting will be structured in two parallel sessions, respectively dealing with international trade law (“Unione europea e diritto del commercio internazionale”) and private international law (“Le nuove sfide del diritto internazionale privato e processuale europeo”). The final session (Friday 1 June, afternoon) will analyse the effects of EU Law on national procedural law of the Member States (“Gli effetti del diritto dell’Unione europea sul diritto processuale nazionale”).

Here’s the programme of sessions 2-4:

Friday, 1 June 2012 (parallel sessions: 9h00 – 13h00)

Unione europea e diritto del commercio internazionale (venue: Facoltà di Giurisprudenza, Aula Magna)

Chair: A. Mazzoni (Univ. of Milan)

  • F. Marrella (Univ. of Venice and EIUC): Unione europea e investimenti esteri;
  • P. Kindler (Univ. of Munich): Crisi dell’impresa e insolvenza transnazionale;
  • L. Radicati di Brozolo (Catholic University of Milan): Corporate governance tra autonomia privata, norme e best practices;
  • D. Gallo (Univ. LUISS – Guido Carli of Rome): Golden shares e diritto dell’Unione europea: sviluppi e prospettive tra mercato interno ed investimenti extracomunitari;
  • G. Peroni (Univ. of Milan): Gli aiuti di stato alle imprese in tempo di crisi e loro compatibilità rispetto alle regole del commercio europeo ed internazionale.

– – – – –

Le nuove sfide del diritto internazionale privato e processuale “europeo” (venue: Facoltà di Giurisprudenza, Aula Meridiana)

Chair: F. Pocar (Univ. of Milan)

  • H. Kronke (Univ. of Heidelberg): La legge applicabile alla responsabilità e alla disciplina delle intermediated securities;
  • S. Bariatti (Univ. of Milan): Abuso del diritto, conflitti di leggi e diritto del commercio internazionale;
  • B. Nascimbene (Univ. of Milan): Operatività e limiti del mutuo riconoscimento nella circolazione delle sentenze e degli atti;
  • A. Leandro (Univ. of Bari): Verso il futuro sequestro europeo su conti bancari nel bilanciamento tra tutela del creditore e tutela dei diritti fondamentali del debitore;
  • M. Maltese (Univ. of Rome “Tor Vergata”): Le forme di cooperazione internazionale nelle procedure di insolvenza transfrontaliere.

– – – – –

Friday, 1 June 2012 (final session: 14h30 – 19h00) 

Gli effetti del diritto dell’Unione europea sul diritto processuale nazionale (venue: Facoltà di Giurisprudenza, Aula Magna)

Chair: C. Consolo (Univ. of Padova)

  • E. Cannizzaro (Univ. of Rome “La Sapienza”): Diritto dell’Unione europea e processo civile;
  • R. Mastroianni (Univ. of Naples “Federico II”): Diritto dell’Unione europea e processo penale;
  • L. Daniele (Univ. of Rome “Tor Vergata”): Diritto dell’Unione europea e processo amministrativo;
  • P. De Pasquale (University LUM “Jean Monnet”): Diritto dell’Unione europea e procedimenti davanti alle autorità indipendenti;
  • P. Ivaldi (Univ. of Genova): Diritto dell’Unione europea e processo costituzionale.

Final Report: S.M. Carbone (Univ. of Genova).