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Jeanne Huang

If a defendant is not present in Australia, Uniform Civil Procedure Rules (“UCPR”) of New South Wales provides that service outside of Australia is permitted if the plaintiff’s claim falls within UCPR Schedule 6 or if a leave is granted under UCPR rule 11.5. If a defendant does not respond within 42 days after being served successfully (rule 11.8), the plaintiff must apply for leave to proceed (rule 11.8AA). A defendant can challenge the jurisdiction of the court and apply to set aside service (rule 12.11). The court has discretion to decide whether to assume jurisdiction (rule 11.6).

AGC Capital Securities v Jaijaifu Modern Agriculture (HK) Limited [2019] NSWSC 62, a case decided by NSW Supreme Court in 2019 provides a test to determine a plaintiff’s application for leave to proceed when no appearance by defendant. The test includes four components:

1.      Whether the defendant has been properly served;

2.      Whether the claim in the originating process falls within UCPR Schedule 6;

3.      Whether it be demonstrated that there is a real issue to be determined (this requirement as being that the plaintiff has an arguable case being one that would be sufficient to survive an application for summary judgment); and

4.      Whether this Court is not a clearly inappropriate forum.

The same test is adopted by Yoon v Lee [2017] NSWSC 1338 and Rossiter v. Core Mining [2015] NSWSC 360.

The application for leave in AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, and Rossiter is not related to UCPR r 11.5.  r 11.5 is to determine whether a leave to serve outside of Australia should be granted. However, these three cases are cases where service outside of Australia has been completed. They are concerned with leaves under r 11.8AA, which provides:

UCPR 11.8AA   Leave to proceed where no appearance by person

(1)  If an originating process is served on a person outside Australia and the person does not enter an appearance, the party serving the document may not proceed against the person served except by leave of the court.

(2)  An application for leave under subrule (1) may be made without serving notice of the application on the person served with the originating process.

R11.8AA does not specify a test. In Australia, the leading case for leave to proceed where no appearance by defendant is Agar v Hyde [2000] HCA 41. In Agar, two rugby players at the NSW brought a personal injury claim against the International Rugby Football Board and several national representatives at the Board, alleging that the Board and its representatives own a duty of care for the plaintiffs. The defendants were served outside of Australia and applied to set aside the service. Agar holds that different tests should be adopted for the plaintiff’s application for leave to proceed where no appearance by defendant and for the defendant’s application to set aside the service.

According to Agar, the test for the plaintiff’s application for leave to proceed when no appearance by defendant should focus on the jurisdictional nexus between the plaintiff’s pleading and the forum and should not consider the merits of the case. The High Court considers:

“is the claim a claim in which the plaintiff alleges that he has a cause of action which, according to those allegations, is a cause of action arising in the State? The inquiry just described neither requires nor permits an assessment of the strength (in the sense of the likelihood of success) of the plaintiff’s claim.” (Agar, para 50)

The Court of Appeal required the plaintiff to establish a good arguable case. However, the High Court held that “[t]he Court of Appeal was wrong to make such an assessment in deciding whether the Rules permitted service out.” (Agar, para 51) Instead, the High Court only requires the plaintiff to establish a prima facie case, saying

“[t]he application of these paragraphs of r1A depends on the nature of the allegations which the plaintiff makes, not on whether those allegations will be made good at trial. Once a claim is seen to be of the requisite kind, the proceeding falls within the relevant paragraph or paragraphs of PT 10 r 1A, service outside Australia is permitted, and prima facie the plaintiff should have leave to proceed.” (Agar, para 51)

PT 10 r 1A is functionally equivalent to the current UCPR Sch 6 although their contents differ to some extent. In contrast, the test of “real issue to be determined” held in AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, and Rossiter is on the merits of the case, which is excluded by Agar.

Regarding the defendant’s application to set aside the service, Agar adopts three common grounds:

  • Service is not authorized by the rules (ie, does not fall within UCPR Sch 6 and not otherwise authorised),
  • The Court is an inappropriate forum,
  • The claim has “insufficient prospects of the success to warrant putting an overseas defendant to the time, expense and trouble of defending the claims.” This requires the Court to assess the strength of the claim and the test is the same for summary judgment lodged by a defendant served locally.

These grounds are not exhaustive. For example, the defendant can apply to set aside the service based on an exclusive jurisdiction clause favouring a foreign court.

However, AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, and Rossiter do not concern the defendant’s application to set aside the service. Further, the test of “real issue to be determined” in AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, and Rossiter is not the same as the “insufficient prospects of the success” in Agar. The test of “insufficient prospects of the success” has been embedded in UCPR 11.6(2)(c), while AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, and Rossiter are not concerned with this provision. They are brought on r11.8AA.

Comparing Agar on one hand and AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, and Rossiter on the other, the latter cases consider forum non conveniens when determining the plaintiff’s application to proceed where no appearance by defendant. Is this consistent with Agar? This issue should be discussed from two aspects. First, Agar did not consider forum non conveniens under a clearly inappropriate forum doctrine because parties did not raise this issue. Therefore, it may argue that this issue was not considered by High Court in Agar. Second, Agar limits courts’ consideration to jurisdictional nexus with the forum when determining the plaintiff’s application to proceed where no appearance by defendant. Jurisdictional nexus refers to whether the service is authorized by the UCPR. However, broadly, jurisdictional nexus may cover forum non conveniens considerations.

Further, AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, and Rossiter seem to confuse the test for the plaintiff’s application for leave to proceed where no appearance by defendant with the test for the defendant’s application to set aside the service. The test of “real issue to be determined” requires the court to examine the merits of the plaintiff’s claim. This is permitted when determining the defendant’s application to set aside the service. However, when determining the plaintiff’s application for leave to proceed where no appearance by defendant, Agar says the court should not assess the strength of the plaintiff’s claim. Further, the test of “real issue to be determined” is not equivalent to the test of “insufficient prospects of the success” decided by Agar and embedded in UCPR r 11.6.

Could AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, and Rossiter be justified on policy grounds? A proposed argument is that leave to proceed involves leave, which requires an exercise of discretion; and providing leave to proceed in circumstances where there is “no real issue” would be a waste of limited court resources. However, the difficulty of this argument is that it conflates the leave to proceed with the motion for a summary judgment. If the plaintiff only asks a leave to proceed without applying for a summary judgment, there is no ground for the court to consider the test of “no real issue” sua sponte.

Could AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, and Rossiter be distinguished from Agar? In both Yoon and Rossiter, the court issued a summary judgment for the plaintiff. In AGC Capital Securities, the court directed the plaintiff to apply for a default judgment. AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, and Rossiter are proceedings where the defendants make no appearance. However, Agar is a proceeding where the defendant applied to set aside the service. Although Agar considered the test for the plaintiff’s application to proceed where no appearance by defendant, it did so for the purpose of distinguishing this test from the test for the defendant’s application to set aside the service. Therefore, in this aspect, it may argue that AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, and Rossiter are distinguishable from Agar, because they are the cases where the plaintiff applied for both a leave and a summary judgment. Therefore, the real issue for AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, and Rossiter is that the court conflated the test for the plaintiff’s application to proceed where no appearance by defendant and the test for summary judgment.

AGC Capital Securities, Yoon, Rossiter, and Agar also bring up another question: why is the test for a plaintiff’s application for leave when no appearance by defendant and the test for a defendant’s application to set aside the service are different? Or should the tests be the same? In the plaintiff’s application for leave to proceed, is the court supposed to take care of the non-responding defendant? The answer is negative partly because the common-law court is not an inquisitorial court in civil-law countries. More important, if the plaintiff only asks a leave to proceed without applying for a summary judgment, there is no ground for the court to consider whether there is real issue to be determined in the plaintiff’s claim.

Arbitration and Protest in Hong Kong

Authors: Jie (Jeanne) Huang and Winston Ma

Following the promulgation of the judicial interpretation by the Supreme People’s Court (“SPC”) on 26 September 2019, Arrangement Concerning Mutual Assistance in Court-ordered Interim Measures in Aid of Arbitral Proceedings by the Courts of the Mainland and of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (“Arrangement”) signed by Mainland China and Hong Kong on 2 April 2019 came into effect in Mainland China from 1 October 2019. This Arrangement provides mutual recognition and enforcement of interim measures between Hong Kong and Mainland China. It has generated broad coverage.[1] This post tries to add to the discussion by providing the first case decided under the Arrangement on 8 October 2019, and more broadly, the reflections on the continuing protests in Hong Kong and arbitration under “One Country, Two Systems’.

Contracts for the International Sale of Goods: A Multidisciplinary Perspective is set to be released by Thomson Reuters (Hong Kong) Limited at the end of July 2019. Edited by Dr Poomintr Sooksripaisarnkit, Lecturer in Maritime Law, Australian Maritime College, University of Tasmania, and Dr Sai Ramani Garimella, Senior Assistant Professor, Faculty of Legal Studies, South Asian University, this book has the following unique features:

  • On the 30th anniversary of the implementation of the CISG (in the year 2018) and almost the 40th anniversary of the adoption of the text of the CISG (in the year 2020), this title at the right time provides value added content for students and practitioners alike considering CISG and its intersection with public domestic and international law;

The Australian common law does not require reciprocity for recognizing and enforcing foreign judgments. Therefore, although Chinese courts have never recognized and enforced an Australian monetary judgment, Australian courts have recognized and enforced Chinese judgments. Thus far, there have been two Chinese judgments recognized and enforced in Australia (both in the State of Victoria). In both cases, the Australian judges considered whether the Chinese courts had international jurisdiction based on the defendants’ citizenship/nationality.

The first case is Liu v Ma.[1] The plaintiff sought to recognize and enforce a default Chinese judgment (worth RMB 3,900,000) against the defendants. The defendants defaulted in the Australian judgment recognition and enforcement (hereinafter ‘JRE’) proceedings. By applying Australian law, the Supreme Court of Victoria held that the Chinese court had international jurisdiction over the defendants because they were born in China and held a Chinese passport, they had substantial activities or financial affairs in China, and Chinese law does not recognize dual nationality.