New Articles for Early 2008
It has been a little while since my last trawl through the law journals, and a few articles and casenotes have been published in the intervening period that private international law enthusiasts may wish to add to their reading list:
J.M. Carruthers, “De Facto Cohabitation: the International Private Law Dimension” (2008) 12 Edinburgh Law Review 51 – 76.
P. Beaumont & Z. Tang, “Classification of Delictual Damages – Harding v Wealands and the Rome II Regulation” (2008) 12 Edinburgh Law Review 131 – 136.
G. Ruhl, “Extending Ingmar to Jurisdiction and Arbitration Clauses: The End of Party Autonomy in Contracts with Commercial Agents?” (2007) 6 European Review of Private Law 891 – 903. An abstract:
In the judgment discussed below, the Appeals Court of Munich (OLG München) deals with the question whether jurisdiction and arbitration clauses have to be set aside in the light of the Ingmar decision of the European Court of Justice where they cause a derogation from Articles 17 and 18 of the Commercial Agents Directive. The Court concludes that this question should be answered in the affirmative if it is ‘likely’ that the designated court or arbitral tribunal will neither apply Articles 17 and 18 nor compensate the commercial agent on different grounds. Thus, the Court advocates that Articles 17 and 18 be given extensive protection. This is, however, problematic because such extensive protection imposes serious restrictions on party autonomy, whereas these restrictions are not required by Community law in general or by the principle of effectiveness in particular. Therefore, it is very much open to doubt whether this decision is in the best interests of the Internal Market.
F. Bolton & R. Radia, “Restrictive covenants: foreign jurisdiction clauses” (2008) 87 Employment Law Journal 12 – 14. The abstract:
Reviews the Queen’s Bench Division judgment in Duarte v Black and Decker Corp and the Court of Appeal decision in Samengo-Turner v J&H Marsh & McLennan (Services) Ltd on whether restrictive covenants were enforceable under foreign jurisdiction clauses contained in the long-term incentive plan agreements of UK domiciled employees of multinational companies. Examines the conflict of laws and whether English law applied under the Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations 1980 Art.16 and under Regulation 44/2001 Arts.18 and 20.
W. Tetley, “Canadian Maritime Law” L.M.C.L.Q. 2007, 3(Aug) Supp (International Maritime and Commercial Law Yearbook 2007), 13-42. The blurb:
Reviews Canadian case law and legislative developments in shipping law in 2005 and 2006, including cases on: (1) carriage of goods by sea; (2) fishing regulations; (3) lease of port facilities; (4) sale of ships; (5) personal injury; (6) recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments; (7) shipping companies’ insolvency; (8) collision; and (9) marine insurance.
S. James, “Decision Time Approaches – Political agreement on Rome I: will the UK opt back in?” (2008) 23 Butterworths Journal of International Banking & Financial Law 8. The abstract:
Assesses the extent to which European Commission proposed amendments to the Draft Regulation on the law applicable to contractual obligations (Rome I) meet the concerns of the UK financial services industry relating to the original proposal. Notes changes relating to discretion and governing law, assignment and consumer contracts.
A. Onetto, “Enforcement of foreign judgments: a comparative analysis of common law and civil law” (2008) 23 Butterworths Journal of International Banking & Financial Law 36 – 38. The abstract:
Provides an overview of the enforcement of foreign judgments in common law and civil law jurisdictions by reference to a scenario involving the enforcement of an English judgment in the US and Argentina. Reviews the principles and procedures applicable to the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in the US and Argentina respectively, including enforcement expenses and legal fees. Includes a table comparing the procedures for the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in California, Washington DC and New York.
J. Carp, “I’m an Englishman working in New York” (2008) 152 Solicitors Journal 16 – 17. The abstract:
Reviews case law on issues arising where a national of one country works in another country. Sets out a step by step approach to ascertaining: the law governing the employment contract; the applicability of mandatory labour laws, including cases on unfair dismissal, discrimination, working time, and the transfer of undertakings; which country has jurisdiction; and public policy. Offers practical suggestions for drafting multinational contracts.
J. Murphy – O’Connor, “Anarchic and unfair? Common law enforcement of foreign judgments in Ireland” 2007 2 Bankers’ Law 41 – 44. Abstract:
Discusses the Irish High Court judgment in Re Flightlease (Ireland) Ltd (In Voluntary Liquidation) on whether, in the event that the Swiss courts ordered the return of certain monies paid by a Swiss airline, in liquidation, to an Irish company, also in liquidation, such order would be enforceable in Ireland. Considers whether: (1) the order would be excluded from enforcement under the common law on the basis that it arose from a proceeding in bankruptcy or insolvency; and (2) the order would be recognised on the basis of a “real and substantial connection” test, rather than traditional conflict of laws rules.
V. Van Den Eeckhout, “Promoting human rights within the Union: the role of European private international law” 2008 14 European Law Journal 105 – 127. The abstract:
This article aims to contribute both to the ‘Refgov’ project, which is focused on the ambition to find ways of promoting human rights within the EU, but also, more in general and apart from the project, to an improved understanding of the crucial place conflict of law rules occupy in the building of a common Europe—a highly political question behind apparently technical issues. In the study the author deals with the parameters, points of interest, etc in relation to private international law which should be heeded if European Member States ‘look at’ each other’s laws, and—in the context of the ‘Refgov’ project—if the idea is to exchange ‘best practices’ or harmonise substantive law, or to harmonise private international law, etc further through a type of open method of coordination. The contribution also shows that private international law issues are decisive in respect of every evaluation of the impact of European integration on human rights, both if this integration process takes place through ‘negative’ harmonisation (for example by falling back on the principle of mutual recognition) and through ‘positive’ harmonisation.
R. Swallow & R. Hornshaw, “Jurisdiction clauses in loan agreements: practical considerations for lenders” (2007) 1 Bankers’ Law 18 – 22. Abstract:
Assesses the implications for borrowers and lenders of the Commercial Court judgment in JP Morgan Europe Ltd v Primacom AG on whether proceedings brought in Germany challenging the validity a debt facility agreement were to be treated as the first seised under Regulation 44/2001 Art.27 (Brussels I Regulation), despite the fact that the agreement contained an exclusive jurisdiction clause in favour of the English courts. Advises lenders on the drafting of loan agreements to help mitigate the risk of a jurisdiction clause being frustrated. Considers the steps that might be taken by the lender once a dispute has arisen.
A. Dutton, “Islamic finance and English law” (2007) 1 Bankers’ Law 22 – 25. Abstract:
Reviews cases relating to Islamic finance, including: (1) the Commercial Court decision in Islamic Investment Co of the Gulf (Bahamas) Ltd v Symphony Gems NV on whether the defendant was liable to make payments under a Sharia compliant contract governed by English law that would contravene Sharia law; (2) the Court of Appeal ruling in Shamil Bank of Bahrain EC v Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd (No.1) interpreting a choice of law clause expressed as English law “subject to the principles” of Sharia law; and (3) the Commercial Court judgment in Riyad Bank v Ahli United Bank (UK) Plc on whether the defendant owed a duty of care to a Sharia compliant fund where it had contracted directly with its parent bank.
J. Burke & A. Ostrovskiy, “The intermediated securities system: Brussels I breakdown” (2007) 5 European Legal Forum 197 – 205. Abstract:
Presents a hypothetical case study of a dispute arising from a cross-border securities transaction involving parties from the UK, Sweden and Finland to examine the application of the private international law regime under Regulation 44/2001 Art.5(1) (Brussels I Regulation), the Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations 1980 Art.4 (Rome Convention) and the Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to Certain Rights in Respect of Securities Held with an Intermediary. Considers the extent to which commercial developments in the securities industry have outstripped the current conflicts of law rules.
M. Requejo, “Transnational human rights claims against a state in the European Area of Freedom, Justice and Security: a view on ECJ judgment, 15 February 2007 – C292/05 – Lechouritou, and some recent Regulations” (2007) 5 European Legal Forum 206 – 210. Abstract:
Comments on the European Court of Justice ruling in Lechouritou v Germany (C-292/05) on whether a private action for compensation brought against Germany with respect to human rights abuses committed by its armed forces during its occupation of Greece in the Second World War fell within the scope of the Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters 1968 Art.1, thus preventing the defendant from claiming immunity for acts committed during armed conflict. Examines the EC and US jurisprudential context for such private damages claims.
L. Osana, “Brussels I Regulation Article 5(3): German Law Against Restrictions on Competition” (2007) 5 European Legal Forum 211 – 212. Abstract:
Summarises the Hamburg Court of Appeal decision in Oberlandesgericht (Hamburg) (1 Kart-U 5/06) on whether the German courts had jurisdiction under Regulation 44/2001 Art.5(3) (Brussels I Regulation) to order a German tour operator not to incite Spanish hotels to refuse to supply contingents to a competitor German tour operator, behaviour that had been found to be anti-competitive.
C. Tate, “American Forum Non Conveniens in Light of the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements” (2007) 69 University of Pittsburgh Law Review 165 – 187.
E. Costa, “European Union: litigation – applicable law” (2008) 19 International Company and Commercial Law Review 7 – 10. Abstract:
Traces the history of how both the Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations 1980 (Rome I) and Regulation 864/2007 (Rome II) became law. Explains how Rome II regulates disputes involving non-contractual obligations and determines the applicable law. Notes areas where Rome II does not apply, and looks at the specific example of how Rome II would regulate a dispute involving product liability, including the habitual residence test.
This Article argues that the federal forum non conveniens doctrine subverts critical national interests in international torts cases. For over a quarter century, federal judges have assumed that foreign injury cases, particularly those filed by foreign plaintiffs, are best litigated abroad. This assumption is incorrect. Foreign injuries caused by multinational corporations who tap the American market implicate significant national interests in compensation and/or deterrence. Federal judges approach the forum non conveniens decision as if it were a species of choice of law, as opposed to a choice of forum question. Analyzing the cases from an adjudicatory perspective reveals that in the case of an American resident plaintiff injured abroad, an adequate alternative forum seldom exists; each time a federal court dismisses such a claim, the American interest in compensation is irrevocably impaired. With respect to deterrence, an analysis focusing properly on adjudicatory factors demonstrates that excluding foreign injury claims, even those brought by foreign plaintiffs, seriously undermines our national interest in deterring corporate malfeasance.
I am sure that I have missed various articles or case comments published in the last couple of months. If you spot any that are not on this list (or, even better, if you have written one and it is not on this list), please let me know.